Bazna Pigs

The Bazna Pig is a Romanian breed of pigs.

Origin and development
The breed has been developed by cross-breeding between Mangalița breed sows and Berk breed boars, beginning with year 1872, in locality Bazna, from Transylvania, also using co-breeding. The resulted products, that had superior productive characteristics compared with the Mangalița breed, have been well appreciated by the breeders, therefore the hybrid population has diffused quickly around the towns Mediaș, Sighișoara, Sibiu and Făgăraș, due to the superior precocity and fertility compared with the maternal, local breed.
In year 1885 and then in year 1900 imports of Berk sires from England were made, which were used in order to improve and to homogenize the Bazna breed, in course of formation and consolidation. The breeds Yorkshire and Sattelschwein were used also later on, occasionally, for infusion. In the last 30 years, the breed was improved also by using the Wessex breed.
Bazna breed was officially recognized as an independent breed in year 1948, after which some selection nuclei were formed.
Shortly after formation, Bazna pigs have diffused around towns Mediaș, Sibiu and Făgăraș, having superior qualities compared with Mangalița and Stocli breeds; after the second world war, Bazna breed has diffused, as well as Strei Black breed, also in other areas from Transylvania (counties Cluj, Alba, Hunedoara, Mureș, Harghita and others), especially in the hill and mountain areas, as well as in Banat, together with the movements of population in this area.
Morphological and productive characteristics
The Bazna breed pigs have medium size and conformation of body specific for the hybrid morphological-productive type. The head is of moderate size, with a slightly concave profile. The ears are middle-sized tending towards front or sideways and horizontal. The neck is short, wide and deep, well connected to the head and to the torso. The torso is middle-sized, wide, fairly deep and almost cylindrical. The superior line of the body is slightly convex. The withers are full and with good conformation; the back and the loin are fairly long and wide. The chest is fairly wide, the ribs are well curved and the flanks full, well outstretched. The croup is fairly long, wide, slightly inclined and well covered with muscles. The hams are well developed but less descended. The members are middle-sized, strong enough, the animals have a good mobility. The abdomen is larger than for other breeds, due to the nourishment that also includes succulent fodder (beet, potatoes, turnips etc.), and has on the lower part 12 symmetric nipples.
The breed’s specific color is black, with a white belt that surrounds the torso around the shoulders, also containing the front members. The width of the white belt varies from a few centimeters up to 30-40 centimeters. The passing from the white belt to the black color is made by a grey area, due to the colored skin and the not-colored hair, area that is specific to all the breeds with black color and white belt. At some specimens, the white color is found also at the extremities of the posterior members, at the muzzle and the end of the tail, color particularities taken over from the Berk breed. The hair is fairly rich, straight or slightly curly, with an average length of 4 cm and the color of the skin on which it grows. The white belt is dominant compared with the black and red color. Few specimens are completely black and with black head or with black head and the rest of the body white; these specimens are excluded from reproduction.
The fertility of the breed is good, with an average of 9,5 piglets at a kidling, of which around  8 piglets are weaned. The lactation capacity of the sows is good, of around 38-42 kg. The productive capacity is remarkable: 8-12 kidlings/life. The piglets have 14-15 kg at weaning, which is achieved at the age of 2 months.
The precocity is mediocre. The young pigs are reproduced beginning with the age of around  10-11 months, and they become adults at the age of 3 years. The daily increase in weight in the period of weight gaining is of 550-600 g, with a high specific consumption, of 5-5,5 U.N.
The young pigs can gain in weight early, with a weight of 90-110 kg at butchering, but as it is a hybrid breed, the best results are obtained up to the weight of 140-160 kg, when the ratio between meat : fat in the body is 1,3-1,4 : 1.
The Bazna breed is adapted to the natural growing conditions from its area. It is not pretentious to the maintenance conditions and harnesses well various sources of nutrition: grass, root crop, potatoes, corn, household leftovers etc. The animals are resilient, and can be grown in extensive and semi-intensive system.
Economical importance and development perspectives
The perspectives of the breed are limited, being surpassed by the perspectives of other meat breeds, which have superior productive characteristics. The breed will continue to be grown in the same areas, where it is appreciated by the locals for its resilience and the quality of its meat and fat, which is firm. The breed will be maintained also for the reserve of genes.
Source (Romanian): Wikipedia
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